Ancient Nubia – The Origin of Egyptian Cosmology

Ancient Nubia and Kemet and the Secret of the Ankh (in formation)

What is debated heavily in Nile Valley Civilization is the Borders of City States. The Border issue has been exploited and the result is the disassociation of Ancient Egypt to Nubia and to the South in culture and Race.

The cure of this disassociation is in the Cosmology of the peoples of Nile Valley Civilization. A proper study of Nubia and the Secret of the Ankh is the Paradigm that allows us to grasp and unify Egypt. In addition to this – Scientific Evidence has recently shown that that South Africa and their Click Language is the Origin of Language.  This New Discovery will also aid in the solving of the problem when we get more information. Until that Point, Cosmology is the Key and the Secret of the Ankh aides in this.

Using the Secret of the Ankh Paradigm – which is really looking at Kmt Cosmologically we can now see over 11,000 years of Ancient Egypt.

Traditional Egyptology have attempted to say that Nubia was just subservient to Egypt at all times  and additionally use race and color to make this point but this is a notion that can be and has been quickly impeached.  What is true is border disputes but Cosmology is the unifying factor.

It is now known that the Basin Napta Playa – where the stone Megaliths exist predate Kemet.  Napta Playa is important for three reasons. The First it is in Nubia. The second the site is 11,000 years old but the megalyths are probably 6,000 years old – so it predates Egypt. The third it is a cosmological as well as astrophysical site. Cosmologically, the site is a complex mathematical  astronomical site called the origin map that charts the universe in Stone Megaliths  in 25,000 year cycles. Third – In the site are burials of Cattle in sacred burials – with the hypothesis that this was the origin of the Hathor Cult.

This means three important things – Napta Playa in Sudan predates Egypt in technology and cosmology. The astronomical important of the Giza Platau had its origin in the Sudan. The people with the technology lived in the Sudan. Here we see the emergence of the Hathor cult – Hathor will eventually be the Chief Deity Amun’s wife/consort.

Cosmologically, we also have the Famine Text.   Dr. Ben says that we come from the mountains of the moon where God Hapi Dwelt – the closest document that speaks to this is not the Hunefer papyrus but the Famine Text.  In this document among other things – we see that the Nwst Djoser asking Imhotep why is there a Famine. Imhotep goes into the Mystery System Librabry for the Answer and says that Egypt in the Third Dynasty is not giving homage to its Ancestors in Nubia. So here is the primary evidence that we need.

After Imhotep told Pharoah what the Mystery System said about what may be the problem, Nwst Djoser made this decree about worshipping the South. M. Litchem’s translation:

Djoser’s decree

Then I awoke happy (?), my heart was decided and at ease. I decreed this order to the temple of my father Khnum.
23 Royal sacrifice for Khnum-Re, lord of the cataract, first of Nubia, as reward for what you favour me with. I make you a gift of your western shore by the mountain of the dusk and your eastern shore by the mountain of dawn, from Elephantine to …… with twelve aruras on the eastern and western shores, with the plants, with the harbours (?) with the river and with every settlement on these aruras.
24 All the peasants working their fields with their labourers and bringing water to their new and high-lying lands, their harvest shall be stored in your granary in excess of the part that used to be your due.
25 All fishermen and trappers and hunters on the water and lion catchers in the desert, I impose on them a duty of one tenth of their catch.
Every calf born by the cows on theses aruras shall be given to the stables as a burnt offering and a remaining daily offering.
26 Moreover one tenth of the gold and ivory and the wood and minerals and every tree stem and all things which the Nubians of Khenet-hen-nefer bring to Egypt shall be handed over together with every man who comes with them (?).
27 No vizier shall give orders in these places and levy a tax on them, diminishing what is being delivered to your temple.
I make you a gift of this field with the stones and the good fruit bearing land and nothing shall be taken away (?).

Here is Imhotep’s analysis:

“I directed my heart to turn to the past, I consulted one of the staff of the Ibis, The chief lector-priest of Imhotep, Son of Ptah South-of-his-Wall: “In which place is Hapy born? Which is the town of the Sinuous one? Which god dwells there? That he might join with  me.”

He stood: “I shall go to Mansion-of-the-Net, It is designed to support a man in his deeds; I shall enter the House of Life, Unroll the Souls of Re, I shall be guided by them.”

He departed, he returned to me quickly, He let me know the flow of Hapy, His shores and all the things they contain. He disclosed to me the hidden wonders, To which the ancestors had made their way, And no king had equaled them since.

He said to me: “There is a town in the midst of the deep, Surrounded by Hapy, Yebu by name; It is first of the first, First nome to Wawat, Earthly elevation, celestial hill, Seat of Re when he prepares To give life to every face. Its temple’s name is ‘Joy-of-life,’ ‘Twin Caverns’ is the water’s name, They are the breasts that nourish all.

It is the house of sleep of Hapy, He grows young in it in [his time], [lt is the place hence] he brings the flood: Bounding up he copulates, As man copulates with woman, Renewing his manhood with joy; Coursing twenty-eight cubits high, He passes Sema-behdet at seven.

Khnum is the god [who rules] there, [He is enthroned above the deep], His sandals resting on the flood; He holds the door bolt in his hand, Opens the gate as he wishes. He is eternal there as Shu, Bounty-giver, Lord-of-fields, So his name is called. He has reckoned the land of the South and the North, To give parts to every god; It is he who governs barley, [emmer], Fowl and fish and all one lives on.

Cord and scribal board are there, The pole is there with its beam. . . His temple opens southeastward, Re rises in its face every day; Its water rages on its south for an iter, A wall against the Nubians each day. There is a mountain massif in its eastern region, With precious stones and quarry stones of all kinds, All the things sought for building temples In Egypt, South and North, And stalls for sacred animals, And palaces for kings,

All statues too that stand in temples and in shrines.”

A thorough reading of this passage – the reader will conclude that the Kemet’s misfortune is caused by neglecting the past. In addition, Imhotep’s guidance is to pay particular attention to Khnum who is a Nubian God of creation. In addition, Hapy – the Nile God originates in Nubia to, as a matter of fact all things do.

Also Dr. Ben’s famous line “We come from the Mountains of the Moon where the God Hapy Dwelt” comes from this passage and not the Hunefer papyrus.  Of course, this quote from Dr. Ben is stylized – but is accurate to the extent that in Nubia is the Amun Temple which is an Origin Place. If you translate the Famine Text and do not see Mountains – then substitute Dr. Ben’s Mountains for “twin caravans”. The Master Teacher, Dr. Ben has never said that he translated the text that he read himself – the translation that he read from may not have been precise. Dr. Ben has been in Egypt of 60 years – the Mdu Ntr is growing and translations are getting more accurate or at least their are more variations.  However, the Famine Text is the only Document that we have that shows Imhotep was part of the Mysteries, that the “souls of re” was the sacred books.

From Djoser’s Dream: “I am Khnum, your maker! My arms are around you, To steady your body, To safeguard your limbs. I bestow on you stones upon stones, That were not found before, Of which no work was made, For building temples, Rebuilding ruins, Inlaying statues’ eyes.

For I am the master who makes, I am he who made himself, Exalted Nun, who first came forth, Hapy who hurries at will; Fashioner of everybody, Guide of each man in his hour, Tatenen, father of gods, Great Shu, high in heaven!

Here we see from the Third Dynasty a connection in Cosmoloy of Ancient Nubia.

In Short, the Secret of the Ankh  is a Paradigm that looks at the Hermopolis Creation Story. You can find a more detailed look at . Central to the Hermoplois Creation Story or the Khemnu Creation Story – Khemnu is the Medu Ntr  for the City of Eight where the Ogdoad  or Eight primordial Deities along with Tehuti and Maat Lived. – In the Name is of the City is the sounds of Khem and Nu and He – these represent the three of the four pairs. The four pairs are Amen/Amenet, Nu, Nunet, Kh/Kheket, He, Hehet. If you look at the sounds you come up with ANKH.  The City of Eight has the sounds of Ke,He and Nu.

There is a debate that Amen is really Imen so it can’t mean Ankh – However we don’t know if the pronunciation of Ankh is really inkh or just Nkh – We have unfortunately taken guidance from the European Academy without critique.

A second major part of the Secret of the Ankh is from those who have restored the Diety Amun/Amen. Central to this is a large body of evidence coming from the Nwst Ankh Tut Amun or Amun Tut Ankh.  This Nwst known as Tut – has another name. His name is Neb Khephera Ra. This is the symbol largely known as the mystery symbol . What we no is that it is the Pharoah’s  Amun Tut Ankh’s other name.

This name of this Nwst or Pharoah is important because he has both Ankh and Amun in his name. His wife has both Ankh and Amun. She is the Queen Ankh es Amun.

The 25th Dynasty Nwst Pi Ankh yy has Ankh in his name. His other name is Men Khepera Ra.  The close proximity in names of the Nwsts and their missions to restore Amen are hardly coincidental at all.

If time permits read the cosmology.

Lastly the important of Jerbel Barkal-One can argue that Egypt/Kemet created the various Cosmologies – Hermopolis or Khemnu/Heliopolis or An – or Memphite/Shabaqa both Kemet and Nubia point to each other.

Let’s explore this – Amen – who is an Ogdoad who reemerges in the chief diety of Kemet in the 18th Dynasty as Egypt is restored after Akenaton and the Armana Revolution. Lives in the South. He lives in the Holy Mountain of Jerbel Barkal.

The Egyptians being so different as others say – would not have the home of its most important deity in an enemy territory.  Jerbel Barkel  is holy because a small part of the mountain  has the Upper Crown and looks like a serpent. In addition, the Mountain is as a Birth Place of the Deity resembles what the Birth Place of a God and the World would be. Jerbel Barkel is a mountain with a Black Sut like foundation in side the mountain range. This place again closely resembles the cosmologies of a deity being born in Nun/Nunet and forming himself with Heh/Hehet, Kek, Kekhet. In this case the deity formed is Amen. In other cosmologies – Pe Ta He or Pth was formed, Ra was formed,  Aten was formed.  The creation is called Sep Tepyy or the first time.

Now a place that we would look would be do we see Jerbel Barkel in any of the text. This would be important. The answer to the question is yes. Besides the Cosmological Equivalence, we see the Holy Mountain in the Book of Coming Forth by Day and by Night. We also see the similarities in the Festivals of  Opet. This Festival is largely about the Nwst going back in time to Sep Teppy. We also see the second home of Amun being in Luxor. Amun is both Amun of Luxor and of Nubia.

I will reference an author Timothy Kendall – the Author of Jerbel Barkal – The History and Architecture of Ancient Napata.

A Good Reading of his work will show the significance of the cosmological argument.  Only understanding the Secret of the Ankh will allow you to understand the following:

The importance of the Nwst being baptized by the Ankh.

The Napta, Kemetic Cosmology will survive past the fall of Kemet. You can find the Deity Imana in Uganda. In Ethiopia you will find the Ogdoad in Solomon’s Ring an and the Coptic Cross – I have said it before but:

Here I want to include a very important recent finding after I have reread The Ethiopian Book of Life – The Bandlet of Rightousness. by Sir. E.A. Wallis Budge.

From x11 – in the footnote – In Codex A, p.54 is given a drawing of the Seal of Solomon. In the centre is what seems to be a gem emitting eight rays of light, and between double concentric circles are written the names HLYPT SLYT SPILT TR(?)YKT PP MRYT HLPT A(?)YLPT. Outside the cirles are the names DPP$ BRWLHT HKIKT TRKLT PPT PRISHT ALILT PPASHNT SHRI’T PLISHT. The text continues “These names shall be supporters, and protectors and deliverers and protectors against all diseases and sicknesses now; also before Kings and Governors, etc.

On p. xiii – Drawings of the Seal of Solomon are found in many Ethiopic amulets, and they are claimed to be copies of the device which was engraved on the bezel of Solomon’s ring. A prominent feature in all these drawings is a modified form of the Coptic Cross, whcih of course, proclaimes their non-Hebrew origin. Worked into the designs are two, four, or eight eyes, which indicate that the Seal was specially intended to protect the wearers of the amulets from the Evil Eye and from the attacks of fiends and the Devil. Here is the powers of the primordial eight pairs surviving and being recoded into the Coptics.

The Below is additional contact of Nubians and Egyptians: Egyptian Contact with other peoples from 3000 bc to the invasion of the Hykos – the main source was from Warefare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC – Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History by William J. Hamblin.


King Scorpion    vs   King Ka     (3085?-3060?)
King Ka              vs    Nubian Kings of Ta-Sety (3075-3050?)
Aha vs Ta-Sety
Second Dynasty
Ranebi (Nebra) military expedition to Kharga Oasis (2820-2790 BC)
Khaskhemy father of Djoser  vs Ta-Sety
Djoser (Netjerikhet) (2687-2668) expedition to mines at Wadi Mahara in south west Sinai.
Huny (Qahedjet) 2653-2649 vs Nubian
Third Dynasty  2387-2649
Huny (Qahedjet) 2353-2649 the last king of the Dynasty who probably built the fortification at Elephantine Island against the rise of Nubian Threat.
Forth Dynasty
Sneferu (2649-2609) vs Nubia, Libya, Sinai
Khafra 2576-2551 vs Nubia
Fifth Dynasty
Userkaf (2513-2506) vs Nubia
Djedkare Izezi Maritime expeditionsto Punt
Wenis negotions with Nubians at Elephantine
Sixth Dynasty
Teti (2374-2354) expeditions vs Canaanites, expeditions to Punt
Merenre II 2310-2300 – Recorded Military expeditions to Nubia
Horkhuf (Harkhuf) 2310-2300 Military Expeditions to Nubia and Libya
Now we  meet Pepy II the longest raining Pharaoh in History 94 years
Pepy (Phiops) II 2300-2206
Pepinakht and his son Sabni accounts military affairs around Nubian Border
Collapse of Old Kindgom 2206-2191
Seventh Dynasty 2190 – Egyptian internal Strive
Eighth Dynasty 2190-2165 more internal Strive
Ninth Dynasty 2164-2040
Akhtoy I (Khety, Archtoes)  - Manetho reported this king acting more cruelly then predecessors in internal Egyptian affairs.
10th Dynasty more strife
11th Dynasty  Mentuhotpe 2155-2134 – established semi independent power at thebes.
MontuHotep unification of Egypt 2047-2035
Western Desert and Expeditions against Nubians.
Montuhotep II 2011-2000  ruled for a decade – Focused on Canaan. However he reopened Maritime Trade to Punt.
Twelfth Dynasty 1991-1786
Amenemht I 1991-1971/1962 – Thoughm Amenemht was a son of a woman from Ta-Sety, He had a strong Nubian Policy also campains against the sand dwellers.
Senwoseret 1971/1962-1928 – For Father Amememht - In charge of Libyan Expeditions Father was assassinated – defeated assassins – kept throne. but as a King focused on Nubia and its resources.
Amememhet II 1929-1895 – Campaigns into Syria as well as managing Nubia.
Senwosret (Sesostris III) 1878-1843 – Called a Conqueror greater then Alexander the Great. Expanded Egypt deeper into Kush and Kerma (Central Sudan) as well as into Canann.
Amenemht III 1843-1797  The Greek Ammenemes – Builder of the Labyrinth  - noted for his half century rule and trade with Sinai and Nubia
Thirteenth Dynasty – 1786-1667 – not well documented ruled by 50 kings. Lost much of Nubia – Kushite King marked his victory with an Egyptian-style stele, depicting himself with bow, malice and the crown of Upper Egypt.
Fourteenth Dynasty (The Canaanite) Dynasty 1788-1667
Called the Hykos Dynasty – where the Hykos conquered Lower Egypt.
It is here where there is a period of Semetic Control where Asiatics came into Egypt.

******I want to center this argument on the Weni of Abydos Expedition of (2350-2330)

The Nwst Weni made a huge military expedition to Canaan. The importance about this is that his autobiography gives a complete description of the peoples in the area.

Here is the translation:

“When is majesty took actions against the Eastern Sand-dwellers, his majesty made an army of many tens of thousands from all of Upper Egypt; from Yebu (Aswan) in the south to Medenyt in the north; from lower Egypt: from all of the Two Sides of the Huse and from Sedjer and Khensedjru; and mercenaries from Irtjet-Nubians, Medja-Nubians, Yam-Nubians, Wawat- Nubians, Kaau-Nubians, Kaau-Nubians; and from Tjemeh (Southern Libyans)

This is important about this is that Weni emloyed a huge army of non Egyptian Nationals to fight the Cananns. There is no mention of nationals Across the Red Sea as any importance.

From Ancient Literature  – The Old and Middle Kingdoms by Miriam Lichtheim, Vol 1: I have her translated passage of Weni’s return from his autobiography

This army returned in safety, It has ravaged the Sand-Dweller’s land. This army returned in safety, It had flattened the Sand-Dwellers’ land. This army returned in safety, It had sacked its strongholds, This army returned in safety, It had cut down its figs, its vines. This army returned in safety, It had thrown fire in all its [mansions]. This army returned in safety, It had slain its troops by many ten-thousands, This army returned in safety, [It had carried} off many [troops] as captives.

From another translation of literature from Egypt, I also have an extraordinary descriptions of the Asiatics from the Middle Kingdom Instructions to King Merikare. This is an instruction from Old King to his successor.

… It is settled with towns, filled with people, Of the best in the whole land, To repel (90) attacks against them. May I see a brave man who will copy it, Who will add to what I have done, A wretched heir would disgrace me.

But this should be said to the Bowman: Lo, the Miserable Asiatic, He is wretched because of the place he’s in: Short of water, bare of wood, Its paths are many and painful because of the mountains.

He does not dwell in one place, Food propels his legs, He fights since the time of Horus, Not conquering nor being conquered, He does not announce the day of combat, Like a thief who darts about a group.

But as I live and shall be what I am, When the Bowmen were a sealed wall,  I breached their strongholds, I made Lower Egypt attack them, I captured their inhabitants, I seized their cattle, Until the Asiatics abhorred Egypt.

Do not concern yourself with him, The Asiatic is a crocodile on its shore, It snatches from a lonely road, It cannot seize from a populous road,

I want to add Senwosret III biography 1878-1843 bc

After the Nubian campaign his majestry travelled downstream Northward to overthrow the Bedouin of the Cannan. His majesty arrived at a foreign land, Shechem by name… Then Shechem fell, together with the vile Retenu Canaanites, while I acted as the rearguard. Then the soldiers joined in to fight with the Easterners. Thereupon I captured an Easterner. Then I had his weapons seized by two soldiers. There was no turning back from the fray, but my face was to the fore of the battle. I did not show my back to the Easterner. In reward Senwosret game to me a staff of electrum in my hand, a bow and a dagger wrought with electrum, together with the weaons, I captured from the enemy. AIB 120.  What is important is that Egypt is in the Biblical Sheckhem and was operating there.

Equally as important is the literature and archeology about Egypt’s contact with the South.

Now we  meet Pepy II the longest raining Pharoah in History 94 years Pepy (Phiops) II 2300-2206 Pepy  wrote this fantastic  passage.

The Pygmy of the god’s dances from the land of the horizon-dwellers at the end of the earth….. Hurry and bring with you this pygmy…. Get worthy men to be around him on deck, lest he fall in the water on the trip down to the Nile. When he lies down at night, get worthy men to lie around him in his tent. Inspect him ten times at night (AEL 1:26-7

Henemu’s expedition to Punt, 2004

…. Donkeys were laden with sandals; when a foot became unshod another sandal was ready. I also made twelve wells on the valley floor and two wells in Idahet, one measuring twenty cubits, the other thirty. I made another in Yaheteb of 10 by 10 cubites at all water levels. Then I reached the sea and then I build this fleet. I loaded it with everything when I made for it a great sacrifice of cattle and goats. When I had returned from the sea, I had done what his majesty had commanded me bringing for him all kinds of gifts that I had found on the shores of god’s land Punt…. Never had the likes been done by any King’s Friend since the mytical time of the God. p 389 Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC – William J. Hamblin

From Pre-Dynastic Egypt At least (3200-3000 BC) – We have evidence of conflict between Nubia and Egypt. Particularly with King Ka and the Nubian Kindoms of Ta-Sety in northern Sudan. The evidence is an excavation of a cemetery with royal burials of rulers of a powerful Pre-Dynastic Kingdom that was the equal and competitor of Kmt (Egypt) at that time.

Bruce Williams interprets some elements of Egyptian kingship as originating in Nubia: “Qustul: The Lost Pharoahs of Nubia”, Archeology, 33/5 (1980)

There existed also in this find pro-hieroglyphic writing. Which is very important because it seemed that writing originated in Nubia and spread to Egypt? If this is the case then, if there was an empire in the Saudi Peninsula, it should have spread that way.

In the Middle King Egypt had conflicts with the Confederation of Kush or Kerma Civilization – Names of LandsThree Main Egyptian Land Masses that are talked about as belonging or having a relationship to Kmt. They are Ta-Meri, Ta-Seti and Ta-Ntr or Ta-Netjer. Ta-Meri is Kmt Proper, Ta-Seti is Sudan (Nubia) We know this because there has been artifacts found in Nubia with the inscriptions of Ta-Seti. According to the Oriental Institute, Nubia Salvage Project – “Other representations and monuments could then be identified, and in the process, a lost kingdom, called Ta-Seti or Land of the Bow, was discovered. In fact, the cemetery at Qustul leads directly to the first great royal monuments of Egypt in a progression. Qustul in Nubia could well have been the seat of Egypt’s founding dynasty. Certainly, no artifacts have been found in the Saudi Peninsula with Mdu Ntr from the Old Kingdom. There is much speculation what Ta-Ntr could have been – It could have meant points further south where Egyptians may have claimed their ancestral homeland. It could have meant all of Nubia. To say that Ta Ntr is Punt and say that Ta Netjer was Ethiopia and all of the Saudi Arabia Peninsula without archeological proof is questionable scholarship. Also to say that Ancient Arabs were part of Punt is also questionable.

Though Ta Ntr is mentioned much in Ancient Egypt and almost everywhere where there is a funerary text beginning with the Htp-Nwst where it introduces Ausar.

From Ancient Egypt standpoint we have a relevant description of Punt from Queen Hatshepsut’s voyage to Punt. The point also to this is that the Egyptians were aware of where there ancestors came from. Also the Nubians were aware of where there ancestors came from. The God Besi (Twa) and the the God Hapi (Nile) are two of the oldest deities and they come from Nubia.

Figure of God Bes/Bisu – notice that he is bearded

We know that Punt is on the mainland of Africa for it is identified with the diety Bes (Pygmy figurative).  Also present were elephant tusk, ivory (hebny) and gum (Kemy), skins of giraffes, panthers and the sacred Cynocephalus baboons.

From Translation of Hatshepsut’s visit.

“…loading of the ships very heavily with marvels of the country of Punt; all goodly fragrant woods of God’s-Land, heaps of myrrh resin, with fresh myrrh trees, with ebony and pure ivory, with green gold of Emu, with cinnamon wood, khesyt wood, with two kinds of incense, eye-cosmetics, with apes, monkeys, dogs, and with skins of the southern panther, with natives and their children. Never was brought the like of this for any king who has been since the beginning”

I also want to add the translation from the Transliteration of the Mdu Ntr.

During the lecture, Dr Wesley keeps identifying the Africans who crossed over to Ethiopia as the Ancient Cushites.  It is important here to speak a little bit about the empires of Ethiopia and Nubia.

Ancient Nubia-From Wikipedia and Encyclopedia Sources

Early history

By the 7th millennium BC, exceedingly large and organized settlements may be found in the region, relying also on deep wells for sources of water.[2] Huts are found constructed in straight rows.[2] Sustenance included fruit, legumes, millets, sorghum and tubers.[2]

Also in the late 7th millennium BC, but a little later than above, imported goats and sheep, apparently from Southwest Asia [1], appear. Many large hearths also appear.[2]

High level of organization

Archaeological discoveries reveal that these prehistoric peoples led livelihoods seemingly at a higher level of organization than their contemporaries who lived closer to the Nile Valley:[2]

Findings also indicate that the region was occupied only seasonally, likely only in the summer when the local lake filled with water for grazing cattle.[4][2] Analysis of human remains suggest migration from sub-Saharan Africa.[4]

Religious ties to ancient Egypt

By the 6th millennium BC, evidence of a prehistoric religion or cult appears, with a number of sacrificed cattle buried in stone-roofed chambers lined with clay.[2] It has been suggested that the associated cattle cult indicated in Nabta Playa marks an early evolution of Ancient Egypt‘s Hathor cult. For example, Hathor was worshipped as a nighttime protector in desert regions (see Serabit el-Khadim). To directly quote professors Wendorf and Schild:[2]

… there are many aspects of political and ceremonial life in the Predynastic and Old Kingdom that reflects a strong impact from Saharan cattle pastoralists

Nevertheless, though the religious practices of the region involving cattle suggest ties to Ancient Egypt,[2] Egyptologist Mark Lehner[1] cautions:

It makes sense, but not in a facile, direct way. You can’t go straight from these megaliths to the pyramid of Djoser.

Other subterranean complexes are also found in Nabta Playa, one of which included evidence of perhaps an early Egyptian attempt at sculpture.[2] One of the world’s earliest known examples of archeoastronomy Circular chromlech at Nabta

By the 5th millennium BC these peoples had fashioned one of the world’s earliest known archeoastronomical devices (roughly contemporary to the Goseck circle in Germany and the Mnajdra megalithic temple complex in Malta), about 1000 years older than but comparable to Stonehenge[2] (see sketch at right). Research suggests that it may have been a prehistoric calendar which accurately marks the summer solstice.[3]

The research done by the astrophysicist Thomas G. Brophy suggests that these monoliths might tell much more. The calendar circle itself is made up of one doorway that runs north-south, a second that runs northeast-southwest marking the summer solstice, and six center stones (see sketch above). Brophy’s hypothesis proposes first that the southerly line of three stones inside the calendar circle represented the three stars of Orion’s Belt and the other three stones inside the calendar circle represented the shoulders and head stars of Orion as they appeared in the sky. These correspondences were for two dates — circa 4,800 BC and at precessional opposition — representing how the sky “moves” long term. Brophy proposes that the circle was constructed and used circa the later date, and the dual date representation was a conceptual representation of the motion of the sky over a precession cycle.

Near by the calendar circle, which is made of smaller stones, there are alignments of large megalithic stones. The southerly lines of these megaliths, Brophy shows, aligned to the same stars as represented in the calendar circle, all at the same epoch, circa 6270 BC. The calendar circle correlation with Orion’s belt occurred between 6400 BC and 4900 BC, matching the radio-carbon dating of campfires around the circle.[5]

Brophy found that the lines made to these megaliths match the spots in the sky where the various stars rose in vernal equinox heliacal rising. In analyzing the varying distances, mulling through assumptions such as that they represented the brightness of the stars, he inadvertently found that they matched the distance of the stars from Earth on a scale of roughly 1 meter = .8 light years within the margin of error for astronomical distances calculated today.[6].

The purpose hear is to show that the Ancient Nubians had a high order of civilization including science.

From The Nubia Salvage Project

NUBIA – “Its glory and its people”


FEBRUARY 1 thru 28, 1987

Presented by: THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO and the OAK WOODS CEMETERY ASSOCIATION In the Tower of Memories, Oak Woods Cemetery, Chicago

An Early Kingdom in the Land of the Bow: Nubia

The A-Group, 3800-3100 B.C.

The first continuous agricultural tradition in Africa, the Sudanese-Saharan Neolithic, developed almost ten thousand years ago in country west of Nubia that is now desert.

The Nile Valley in Egypt had been inhospitable, but in the seasonally dry channels of the Second Cataract, early farmers learned to manage parts of the river’s annual flood. This knowledge could then be applied in Egypt’s wide floodplain, giving rise to the great sequence of Upper Egypt’s early civilizations.

Upper Egypt soon grew wealthy and its culture expanded again into Nubia, where renewed southern contacts gave rise to the first of Nubia’s trading cultures, called the A-Group. Incense, copper, gold, objects of shell, and semiprecious stones were traded northward in return for manufactured articles and probably agricultural produce.

Most surprising, evidence that early pharaohs ruled in A-Group Nubia was discovered by the Oriental Institute at Qustul, almost at the modern Sudanese border. A cemetery of large tombs contained evidence of wealth and representations of the rulers and their victories. Other representations and monuments could then be identified, and in the process, a lost kingdom, called Ta-Seti or Land of the Bow, was discovered. In fact, the cemetery at Qustul leads directly to the first great royal monuments of Egypt in a progression. Qustul in Nubia could well have been the seat of Egypt’s founding dynasty.

The Land of Wawat: C-Group Lower Nubia, 2300-1550 B.C.

Life in Nubia between 3100 and about 2300 B. C. differed greatly from the prosperous times of A-Group. We know of only a few inhabitants and one substantial town, where copper was smelted for export.

About 2300 B.C., during the Egyptian Sixth Dynasty, a new culture appeared, which archaeologists call C-Group. Cattle played an important role in this culture, as they have in many other African societies since. Nevertheless, the C-Group was settled permanently along the Nile, from Aswan to the Second Cataract, and a closely related culture was established in northern Sudan, especially at Kerma, south of the Third Cataract. As Egypt fragmented politically, C-Group people entered the country to the north, as herdsmen and soldiers. They sometimes rose very high in Egyptian society and they played an important role in the struggles that founded the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, about 2050 B.C.

From biographies of Egyptian governors at Aswan, about 2300 B. C., we learn that the peoples to the south were concentrated in four principalities. One, Wawat, later gave its name to all of Lower Nubia, the land between the First and the Second Cataracts. Another, Yam, may have been a predecessor of Kush. In the Egyptian period of disunity, about 2250 B. C., Lower Nubia had its own pharaohs.

C-Group is well known for its tightly packed cemeteries of high stone circles. Next to these circles were placed stelae, some with pictures of cattle incised on them, and pottery, some of Nubia’s finest art. Three major cemeteries and a house of this culture were excavated by the Oriental Institute at Adindan and Serra East.

Kerma and the Rise of Kush, ca. 2000-1550 B. C.

Egypt conquered Lower Nubia about 1950 B. C., and retained it until about 1700. C-Group kept its cultural identity under Egyptian rule, but the land of Kush to the south and the Medjay people of the Eastern Desert remained independent. Kush, much influenced by the Medjay, became a major power in the south, and as Egypt fell into disunity again, about 1700 B. C., Kush took over Lower Nubia with its C-Group population and Egyptian garrisons. The allegiance of people and soldiers was transferred to the southern ruler who was represented as a pharaoh.

Most archaeology of the Kerma culture or early Kush is found south of the Second Cataract, especially at the great capital at Kerma, with its central temples, elaborate smelter, manufacturing installations, houses and enormous royal mound tombs. Its magnificent pottery was sometimes exported as far north as the Egyptian Delta, and sometimes carried north by travelling officials and soldiers.

The Ages of Egyptian Occupation

The Middle Kingdom, 1950-1700 B. C. The New Kingdom, 1550-1 100 B.C.

The two periods of Egyptian rule in Nubia were quite different. In the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian garrisons occupied fortresses and the native C-Group peoples were not profoundly changed by the imperial occupation.

After the terrible struggles that ended Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period, objects and many local customs became practically indistinguishable from those of Egypt. Much that underlay the tremendous elaboration of Egypt must have been present long before in Nubia, for the rapid, sympathetic, and understanding adoption of Egyptian culture in Nubia is unique in the ancient world. Egypt invested heavily in this change, building numerous temple complexes such as Abu Simbel that were at once centers of religion, culture, politics, and economy. In later centuries, this investment bore fruit as Nubia championed the pharaonic faith against forces of disruption, conquest and foreign rule in the Nile Valley again and again

Now we get to Kush. If Dr. Wesleys says that the ancient Arabs were actually Ancient Kushites then the empire of Kush begins around 1100 BC. I may be misrepresenting him, because he may have said that the Ancient Kushites crossed over into Yemen in Pre-history and left Africa before 3000 B.C.  Though this may be possible – Let’s table that for a second and handle that in the next last section.

The Empire of Kush

Between 1100 and 750 B.C., little is known of Nubia, but after 750, a new Kushite kingdom appeared at Napata near the Fourth Cataract and rapidly expanded into a huge empire. To the south, Meroe was founded. To the north, Egypt had fallen into fragments under Libyan rulers, and the Kushites extended their control north of Thebes, the cult center of the god Amun in Egypt, who was also the most favored deity of Kush. Piye, most famous of Kush’s pharaohs, united the Nile Valley from the Mediterranean to Meroe, creating one of Africa’s greatest states. He and his successors are known as Egypt’s Twenty-fifth Dynasty.

We are talking about the period of Pianky, Shabaka and Taharqa.

Taharqa, was a great builder, and the Kushite rulers led Egypt to its last age of outstanding achievement, which reached its peak in the sixth century B.C. But when Kush tried to stop the westward advance of Assyria in Asia, Taharqa and his successor Tanutamani were defeated and expelled from Egypt by 650 B.C. In Nubia and Sudan, Kush continued to be a major state for a thousand years.


It is where in Ethiopia and/or Yemen – the Legend of Sheba both
Christian and Islamic appears. This dated around 1,000 B.C.

To The African Ethiopia, she is known as Makeda,

For The Nubians from Wikipedia to be brief – The tradition of the Candaces is well documented in Nubia, where the rule of its many queens recedes into prehistoric times and there the title Kentakes is a term used to describe the long tradition of leadership in Nubia by warrior queens. Nubia was south of Ancient Egypt, also divided by the Nile River and bordered by the Red Sea and, it is another candidate for the location of Sheba and the famous queen. The history of Nubia provides examples of a tradition and a wealthy kingdom that could be the original kingdom of the Queen of Sheba. The economics of the culture was based upon trade. David Jones, in Women Warriors: a History, relates that in 332 BC Alexander the Great attempted to lead his army into Nubia. At its border, he was confronted by the brilliant military formations devised by their warrior queen, Candace of Meroë. She led her army on the opposite side of the border from atop an elephant. Alexander withdrew and redirected his forces to enter Egypt instead.[9] It should be noted that this story is thought by scholars to be legendary, and Alexander appears never to have attacked Nubia. [10][11] That was the beginning of the Greek rule of Egypt that would last for three hundred years until the Roman occupation in 30 B.C.

The Big Point of This is that we know that in Egypt Females Ruled and we know that in Nubia Females ruled. We have no documentation that Arab Females ruled. So it would look more like that Sheba was in fact Makeda and an African.

Meroitic Nubia, ca. 200 B.C.- A.D. 300

The actual capital of Kush was established at Meroe quite early even though its rulers built pyramids near Napata until about 300 B.C. Meroe became a great city of large industrial complexes and great temples, with an inner city that contained palaces, a shrine with a large pool and columns that spouted water, and even an observatory. Numerous important centers were founded in the Isle of Meroe, and great temple complexes dedicated to gods with both Egyptian and Meroitic names. The most important Meroitic deity was Apedemak, usually shown with a lion’s head, who became one of the greatest state gods. The outstanding Meroitic industry known to us is iron. The site of Meroe still contains large heaps of slag, and recent excavations have unearthed parts of the furnaces used to smelt the metal.

In the north, Meroitic policy had been to assist revolts in Upper Egypt against foreign rulers, such as Persians, the Macedonian Ptolemies, and Romans. After an agreement with Rome just after 23 B.C., Meroitic settlers were able to live close to Aswan, beginning a new era of prosperity in Lower Nubia. Wealth derived from trade made possible some of Nubia’s most delightful achievements in arts and crafts. The culture, like that of Kush’s main center at Meroe, was pharaonic, and the representations on pottery and small objects were made in accordance with the what was considered proper in that tradition. These Meroites of Lower Nubia also constructed small brick pyramids, and equipped their chapels with stone sculptures and inscribed monuments.

X-Group Nubia

The Blemmyes, ca A.D. 250-500

The Noubadian Kingdom, ca. A.D. 350-550

With the Roman world in turmoil, and Meroe in decline, a people from east of the Nile known to the Greeks as Blemmyes and to the Arabs as Bedja, rapidly overran much of Egypt and Lower Nubia. Although expelled from Egypt, they were able to establish themselves in the region of Nubia just south of Aswan. Although they continued the religion of the pharaohs, their rulers used the Greek forms of contemporary Roman Imperial titles. The Oriental Institute excavated near Kalabsha and recovered many fragments of decoration from one of the Blemmyes’ most important holy places, as well as pieces of their unusual and beautiful pottery.

South of the Blemmyes, the Meroitic province of Lower Nubia collapsed by about A. D. 300, and by 375, the kingdom of the Noubades, now known as Nubians was established with its capital near the modern Sudanese Border. Great mound-tombs of its kings at Qustul and Ballana contained much wealth, in crowns, jewels, and great weapons, including long African spear-swords, now in the Cairo Museum. The Oriental Institute’s own excavations there discovered that the tumuli themselves were only part of larger complexes of chapels and sacrificial pits. Like the Meroitic rulers they supplanted, the Noubadians used pharaonic symbols and worshipped ancient gods. They joined with the Blemmyes in attacks on Upper Egypt in defense of the old religion against the newly dominant Christianity.

Christian Nubia, ca. A.D. 550-1400

The reason for this is to look into Nubian Civilization to add to the record that the Civilization below Kmt was various Nubian Periods. In these Nubian Periods – there is no record of the Nubians having any large conflicts with people across the Red Sea.

Here is Cosmology references in short
The cosmology of Khmun or Hermopolis is one of the oldest cosmologies. There are several themes but existing was Amen/Amenet, Nun/Nunet, Kuk/Kukhet, Heh/Hehet and Tuhuti was called their father is some text and Maat their mother in another text. In this cosmology some event explosion took place that caused the combining of the eight
References are the “lake of two knives”, “island of flames”.

The cosmology of Khmun then combines with the cosmology of Yonew, Helipolis or On. In this cosmology precreation is not explicityl stated but Atum is created in some event with Nun and steps on the primieval hill and begins creation.

The next cosmology is that of Menefer/memphite/Hikuptah Cosmology. Here Ptah takes the role of Atun and embodies in his mouth the Eight and creates the Ennead.

From the Middle Kingdom Amen Hotep III begins the worship of Amun Re His Son Amen Hotep IV begins the worship of Aten Re combining older dieties into Aten. He takes this one step further by defacing the names of the other dieties.

Amen Tut Ankh (Tut Ankh Amun) restores the old religion Horemhab begins the persecution of the Aten priesthood

Amun Ra becomes the popular Dietity of the working people in Waset/Thebes. Amun is “that beloved God who hearkens to humble entreaties, who stretches forth his hand to the  humble, who saves the weak”, “who hears prayer, conies at the  voice of the distressed humble one, who gives breath to him that is  wretched”, and Re-Harakhte is called “august, beloved, merciful  God who hears him that prays, who hears the humble entreaties  of him that calls upon him, who comes at the voice of him that  utters his name.”

Amun Ra has 777 ears and milions of Eyes. He becomes the hidden one that we pray and hears our prayers and appears when we need him.

The Shabaka stone contains aspects of  all of the Cosmologies.  I asked Kemetic Professor  Mfundishi Jhutyms about the problems of the different strains of cosmology and he has an excellent metaphor that described helps. Basically, if a car runs in back of a bus – and there are three witnesses. Each witness will tell his story from his vantage point. But the fact is that the car hit the bus. So there is at least one agreement. Here life comes out of Nun/Nunet.

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